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如何在 Ubuntu 22.04 LTS 上安装 Joomla

Joomla 是一个免费的开源内容管理系统,用于在网站上发布 Web 内容。它基于 PHP 构建,并将其数据存储在后端的基于 SQL 的数据库引擎上,例如 MySQL/MariaDB。joomla-logo

在 Ubuntu 22.04 LTS Jammy Jellyfish 上安装 Joomla

apt步骤 1. 首先,通过在终端中运行以下命令,确保所有系统包都是最新的。

sudo apt update
sudo apt upgrade

步骤 2. 在 Ubuntu 22.04 上安装 LAMP 堆栈。

在开始本教程之前,必须在您的服务器上安装 LAMP 服务器。如果您没有安装 LAMP Stack,您可以在此处按照我们的指南进行操作。

步骤 3. 在 Ubuntu 22.04 上安装 Joomla。

默认情况下,Joomla 在 Ubuntu 22.04 基础存储库中不可用。现在运行以下命令将最新的稳定版 Joomla 下载到您的 Ubuntu 系统:

wget https://downloads.joomla.org/cms/joomla4/4-1-4/Joomla_4-1-4-Stable-Full_Package.zip

下载完成后。我们需要把它解压到目录:/var/www/html/

sudo unzip Joomla_4-1-4-Stable-Full_Package.zip -d /var/www/html/joomla

我们将需要更改一些文件夹权限:

sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/html/joomla/

步骤 4. 为 Joomla 配置 MariaDB。

默认情况下,MariaDB 未加固。mysql_secure_installation您可以使用脚本保护 MariaDB 。您应该仔细阅读下面的每个步骤,这些步骤将设置 root 密码、删除匿名用户、禁止远程 root 登录、删除测试数据库和访问安全 MariaDB:

mysql_secure_installation

像这样配置它:

- Set root password? [Y/n] y
- Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] y
- Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] y
- Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] y
- Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] y

接下来,我们需要登录 MariaDB 控制台并为 Joomla 创建一个数据库。运行以下命令:

mysql -u root -p

这将提示您输入密码,因此请输入您的 MariaDB 根密码并按 Enter。登录到数据库服务器后,您需要为 Joomla 安装创建一个数据库:

MariaDB [(none)]> CREATE DATABASE joomla_db;
MariaDB [(none)]> CREATE USER 'joomla_user'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'your-strong-password';
MariaDB [(none)]> GRANT ALL ON joomla_db.* TO 'joomla_user'@'localhost';
MariaDB [(none)]> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
MariaDB [(none)]> EXIT;

步骤 5. 为 Joomla 配置 Apache Web 服务器。

现在我们为 Joomla 创建一个 Apache 虚拟主机:

nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/joomla.conf

添加以下文件:

<VirtualHost *:80>
 ServerAdmin admin@your-domain.com
 DocumentRoot /var/www/html/joomla/
 ServerName your-domain.com
 ServerAlias www.your-domain.com

 ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log
 CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/access.log combined

 <Directory /var/www/html/joomla/>
        Options FollowSymlinks
        AllowOverride All
        Require all granted
 </Directory>
</VirtualHost>

保存并关闭文件,然后重新启动 Apache 网络服务器以进行更改:

sudo a2ensite joomla.conf
sudo a2enmod rewrite
sudo a2enmod ssl rewrite
sudo systemctl restart apache2

第 6 步:使用 Let’s Encrypt 保护 Joomla。

首先,您需要安装 Certbot 以使用 Let’s Encrypt 获取 SSL 证书:

sudo apt install certbot python3-certbot-apache

接下来,按照以下步骤使用 Let’s Encrypt 获取您的 SSL 证书:

sudo certbot --apache

您将需要按照交互式提示安装证书。由于我有两个域,我将为这两个域安装 SSL 证书:

Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log
Enter email address (used for urgent renewal and security notices)
 (Enter 'c' to cancel): admin@your-domain.com

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Please read the Terms of Service at
https://letsencrypt.org/documents/LE-SA-v1.2-November-15-2017.pdf. You must
agree in order to register with the ACME server. Do you agree?
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
(Y)es/(N)o: Y
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Would you be willing, once your first certificate is successfully issued, to
share your email address with the Electronic Frontier Foundation, a founding
partner of the Let's Encrypt project and the non-profit organization that
develops Certbot? We'd like to send you email about our work encrypting the web,
EFF news, campaigns, and ways to support digital freedom.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
(Y)es/(N)o: N
Account registered.

Which names would you like to activate HTTPS for?
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1: your-domain.com
2: www.your-domain.com
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Select the appropriate numbers separated by commas and/or spaces, or leave input
blank to select all options shown (Enter 'c' to cancel): 1,2
Requesting a certificate for your-domain.com and www.your-domain.com
Successfully received certificate.
Certificate is saved at: /etc/letsencrypt/live/your-domain.com/fullchain.pem
Key is saved at:         /etc/letsencrypt/live/your-domain.com/privkey.pem
This certificate expires on 2022-09-16.
These files will be updated when the certificate renews.
Certbot has set up a scheduled task to automatically renew this certificate in the background.

Deploying certificate
Successfully deployed certificate for domain.com to /etc/apache2/sites-available/www.your-domain.com-le-ssl.conf
Successfully deployed certificate for www.domain.com to /etc/apache2/sites-available/www.your-domain.com-le-ssl.conf
Congratulations! You have successfully enabled HTTPS on https://domain.com and https://www.your-domain.com

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
If you like Certbot, please consider supporting our work by:
 * Donating to ISRG / Let's Encrypt:   https://letsencrypt.org/donate
 * Donating to EFF:                    https://eff.org/donate-le
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

步骤 7. 设置自动续订 SSL。

Let’s Encrypt 证书的有效期为 90 天,强烈建议在证书到期前更新证书。您可以通过运行以下命令来测试证书的自动续订:

sudo certbot renew --dry-run

步骤 8. 配置防火墙。

现在,我们使用 Apache 设置了一个简单防火墙 (UFW),以允许对 HTTP 和 HTTPS 的默认 Web 端口进行公共访问:

sudo ufw allow OpenSSH
sudo ufw allow 'Apache Full'
sudo ufw enable

步骤 9. 访问 Joomla Web 界面。

成功安装后,打开您的网络浏览器并使用 URL 访问 Joomla 安装向导。您将被重定向到以下页面:https://your-domain.com

Joomla-setup-installer

感谢您使用本教程在 Ubuntu 22.04 LTS Jammy Jellyfish 系统上安装带有 LAMP 的 Joomla 4。如需其他帮助或有用信息,我们建议您查看Joomla 网站

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